No more cleartext-passwords in Scripts – Oracle Secure External Password Store (SEPS)

Gone are the day when cleartext passwords had to be stored in scripts for Oracle database access. The solution to this requirement is “Oracle Secure External Password Store (SEPS)”. This article will give a short introduction and a practical example of the solution.

Key facts:

  • no Advanced Security Option (License) necessary
  • every unix-account, who has access to the wallet can use it to log on to the contained databases without a password! Therefore prevent other unix-accounts from accessing your wallet! (chmod, chown)

Installation

  • Oracle Client: Unix-Account, who wishes to connect to the database without providing a password needs to have an Oracle Client installed. Actually it can be an Instant Client, however the Instant Client does not have the Oracle Wallet Manager (owm).
  • TNS_ADMIN: If the installed Oracle-Client is also used by other unix-accounts, you have to set Environment-Variable TNS_ADMIN to point to a dedicated destination for sqlnet.ora
echo "export TNS_ADMIN=/home/techuser/oracle/network/admin" >> ~/.bash_profile

  • sqlnet.ora in $TNS_ADMIN: In this file, the path to your personal wallet is defined:
WALLET_LOCATION =
(
   SOURCE =
      (METHOD = FILE)
      (METHOD_DATA =
         (DIRECTORY = /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet)
      )
)
SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = FALSE

Be aware that sqlnet.ora has very sensitive formatting! Blank at the beginning of the line means that previous line is continued. If the first character of a line is not a blank, then it is supposed to be new directive. Therefore note the identation of wallet_location parameter.

  • tnsnames.ora in $TNS_ADMIN: This file contains TNS Aliases, which are used to connect to database. If the unix-account needs to  connect to one database but with 2 different database accounts, then it needs to use 2 distinct tns aliases!
  • Creation of Wallet: When the wallet is created, a wallet password is requested. This password is needed when viewing, adding, modifying and deleting wallet entries.
mkstore –wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet –create

Management of Credentials in Wallet:

  • Adding Credentials to Wallet:
mkstore -wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet \
-createCredential
  • Removal of Credentials from wallet:

mkstore -wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet \
-deleteCredential TNSAlias

  • Modification of Credential in wallet

mkstore -wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet \
-modifyCredential N102 scott newpassword
Enter password:
Modify credential Modify 1
 
mkstore -wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet \
-modifyEntry oracle.security.client.password1 newpass
Enter password:

  • Viewing of Credentials in Wallet
mkstore -wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet -list
 
Oracle Secret Store entries:
oracle.security.client.connect_string1
oracle.security.client.password1
oracle.security.client.username
 
mkstore -wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet \
-viewEntry oracle.security.client.connect_string1
Enter password: 
 
oracle.security.client.connect_string1 = N102
 
mkstore -wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet -viewEntry oracle.security.client.username1
Enter password:
oracle.security.client.username1 = scott
 
mkstore -wrl /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet -viewEntry oracle.security.client.password1
Enter password:
oracle.security.client.password1 = tiger

  • Changing Wallet Password
orapki wallet change_pwd -wallet /home/techuser/oracle/network/wallet \
-oldpwd welcome1 -newpwd welcome2

Example:

DBs:
 
TESTDB1 (11.2.0.3)
TESTDB2 (11.2.0.3)
 
Techuser:
techuser1 - uses RDBMS Server Home als Client
techuser2 - uses Oracle Instant Client
 
Requirements:
techuser1 should be able TO CONNECT TO ro_user@TESTDB2 AND rw_user@TESTDB2
techuser2 should be able TO CONNECT TO ro_user@TESTDB2 AND rw_user@TESTDB1 
 
Preparations:
 
AS oracle:
. TESTDB2.env
 
sqlplus "/as sysdba"
 
SQL> GRANT CREATE SESSION TO ro_user IDENTIFIED BY ro_password;
 
GRANT succeeded.
 
SQL> GRANT CREATE SESSION TO rw_user IDENTIFIED BY rw_password;
 
GRANT succeeded.
 
. TESTDB1.env
 
sqlplus "/as sysdba"
 
SQL> GRANT CREATE SESSION TO rw_user IDENTIFIED BY rw_password;
 
GRANT succeeded.
 
AS root:
useradd techuser1
useradd techuser2
 
su - techuser1
export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH
export TNS_ADMIN=/home/techuser1/oracle/network/admin
mkdir -p oracle/network/admin oracle/network/wallet
 
vi $TNS_ADMIN/sqlnet.ora:
WALLET_LOCATION =
   (SOURCE =
      (METHOD = FILE)
         (METHOD_DATA=
           (DIRECTORY=/home/techuser1/oracle/network/wallet)
         )
    )
 
SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE=TRUE
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE
 
vi $TNS_ADMIN/tnsnames.ora:
 
TESTDB2_ro =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = oravm1.intra)(PORT = 1522))
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVER = DEDICATED)
      (SERVICE_NAME = TESTDB2_SITE1)
    )
  )
 
TESTDB2_rw =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = oravm1.intra)(PORT = 1522))
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVER = DEDICATED)
      (SERVICE_NAME = TESTDB2_SITE1)
    )
  )
 
[techuser1@oravm1 admin]$ tnsping TESTDB2_ro
 
TNS Ping Utility FOR Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production ON 01-MAR-2012 11:13:34
 
Copyright (c) 1997, 2011, Oracle.  ALL rights reserved.
 
Used parameter files:
/home/techuser1/oracle/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
 
Used TNSNAMES adapter TO resolve the alias
Attempting TO contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = oravm1.intra)
(PORT = 1522)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = TESTDB2_SITE1)))
OK (0 msec)
[techuser1@oravm1 admin]$ tnsping TESTDB2_rw
 
TNS Ping Utility FOR Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production ON 01-MAR-2012 11:13:36
 
Copyright (c) 1997, 2011, Oracle.  ALL rights reserved.
 
Used parameter files:
/home/techuser1/oracle/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
 
Used TNSNAMES adapter TO resolve the alias
Attempting TO contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = oravm1.intra)
(PORT = 1522)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = TESTDB2_SITE1)))
OK (10 msec)
 
[techuser1@oravm1 admin]$ mkstore -wrl /home/techuser1/oracle/network/wallet -CREATE
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2011, Oracle AND/OR its affiliates. ALL rights reserved.
 
Enter password:
Enter password again:
 
mkstore -wrl /home/techuser1/oracle/network/wallet \
 -createCredential TESTDB2_rw rw_user rw_password
 
mkstore -wrl /home/techuser1/oracle/network/wallet \
-createCredential TESTDB2_ro ro_user ro_password
 
[techuser1@oravm1 admin]$ mkstore -wrl /home/techuser1/oracle/network/wallet \
-createCredential TESTDB2_rw rw_user rw_password
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2011, Oracle AND/OR its affiliates. ALL rights reserved.
 
Enter wallet password:
CREATE credential oracle.security.client.connect_string1
 
[techuser1@oravm1 admin]$ mkstore -wrl /home/techuser1/oracle/network/wallet \
 -createCredential TESTDB2_ro ro_user ro_password
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2011, Oracle AND/OR its affiliates. ALL rights reserved.
 
Enter wallet password:
CREATE credential oracle.security.client.connect_string2
 
[techuser1@oravm1 admin]$ sqlplus /@TESTDB2_rw
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production ON Thu Mar 1 11:19:40 2012
 
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  ALL rights reserved.
 
Connected TO:
Oracle DATABASE 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
WITH the Partitioning, OLAP, DATA Mining AND REAL Application Testing options
 
SQL> SHOW USER
USER IS "RW_USER"
SQL> quit
Disconnected FROM Oracle DATABASE 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
WITH the Partitioning, OLAP, DATA Mining AND REAL Application Testing options
[techuser1@oravm1 admin]$ sqlplus /@TESTDB2_ro
 
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production ON Thu Mar 1 11:19:45 2012
 
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  ALL rights reserved.
 
Connected TO:
Oracle DATABASE 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
WITH the Partitioning, OLAP, DATA Mining AND REAL Application Testing options
 
SQL> SHOW USER
USER IS "RO_USER"
 
[techuser1@oravm1 wallet]$ ls -la /home/techuser1/oracle/network/wallet/
total 24
drwxrwxr-x 2 techuser1 techuser1 4096 Mar  1 11:15 .
drwxrwxr-x 4 techuser1 techuser1 4096 Mar  1 11:01 ..
-rw------- 1 techuser1 techuser1 4341 Mar  1 11:17 cwallet.sso
-rw------- 1 techuser1 techuser1 4264 Mar  1 11:17 ewallet.p12
[techuser1@oravm1 wallet]$
 
techuser2 WITH instant client:
 
unzip instantclient-basic-linux.x64-11.2.0.3.0.zip
unzip instantclient-sqlplus-linux.x64-11.2.0.3.0.zip
 
export ORACLE_HOME=/home/techuser2/instantclient_11_2
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME:$PATH
export TNS_ADMIN=/home/techuser2/oracle/network/admin
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
 
[techuser2@oravm1 ~]$ mkdir -p /home/techuser2/oracle/network/admin
[techuser2@oravm1 ~]$ mkdir -p /home/techuser2/oracle/network/wallet
 
vi $TNS_ADMIN/sqlnet.ora
 
WALLET_LOCATION =
   (SOURCE =
      (METHOD = FILE)
         (METHOD_DATA=
           (DIRECTORY=/home/techuser2/oracle/network/wallet)
         )
    )
 
SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE=TRUE
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE
 
vi $TNS_ADMIN/tnsnames.ora
 
TESTDB2_ro =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = oravm1.intra)(PORT = 1522))
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVER = DEDICATED)
      (SERVICE_NAME = TESTDB2_SITE1)
    )
  )
 
TESTDB1 =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = oravm1.intra)(PORT = 1522))
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVER = DEDICATED)
      (SERVICE_NAME = TESTDB1)
    )
  )
 
Test interactive Password:
 
[techuser2@oravm1 instantclient_11_2]$ sqlplus ro_user@TESTDB2_ro
 
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production ON Thu Mar 1 11:28:53 2012
 
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  ALL rights reserved.
 
Enter password:
 
Connected TO:
Oracle DATABASE 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
WITH the Partitioning, OLAP, DATA Mining AND REAL Application Testing options
 
SQL> quit
 
Problem: no mkstore Tool IN Instantclient
Workaround: CREATE wallet WITH oracle  binaries owner AND copy afterwards
 
[oracle@oravm1 ~]$ mkdir /tmp/wallet
[oracle@oravm1 ~]$  /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/mkstore \
-wrl /tmp/wallet -CREATE
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2011, Oracle AND/OR its affiliates. ALL rights reserved.
 
Enter password:
Enter password again:
[oracle@oravm1 ~]$
[oracle@oravm1 ~]$
[oracle@oravm1 ~]$
[oracle@oravm1 ~]$
[oracle@oravm1 ~]$ /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/mkstore \
-wrl /tmp/wallet -createCredential TESTDB2_ro ro_user ro_password
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2011, Oracle AND/OR its affiliates. ALL rights reserved.
 
Enter wallet password:
 
CREATE credential oracle.security.client.connect_string1
[oracle@oravm1 ~]$ /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/bin/mkstore \
-wrl /tmp/wallet -createCredential TESTDB1 rw_user rw_password
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2011, Oracle AND/OR its affiliates. ALL rights reserved.
 
Enter wallet password:
CREATE credential oracle.security.client.connect_string2
 
[techuser2@oravm1 wallet]$ ls -al
total 28
drwxr-xr-x  2 oracle oinstall 4096 Mar  1 11:32 .
drwxrwxrwt 31 root   root     4096 Mar  1 11:32 ..
-rw-------  1 oracle oinstall 4333 Mar  1 11:33 cwallet.sso
-rw-------  1 oracle oinstall 4256 Mar  1 11:33 ewallet.p12
 
[root@oravm1 techuser2]# chown -R techuser2:techuser2 /tmp/wallet
 
[root@oravm1 techuser2]# ls -la /tmp/wallet/
total 28
drwxr-xr-x  2 techuser2 techuser2 4096 Mar  1 11:32 .
drwxrwxrwt 31 root      root      4096 Mar  1 11:35 ..
-rw-------  1 techuser2 techuser2 4333 Mar  1 11:33 cwallet.sso
-rw-------  1 techuser2 techuser2 4256 Mar  1 11:33 ewallet.p12
 
[techuser2@oravm1 wallet]$ pwd
/home/techuser2/oracle/network/wallet
[techuser2@oravm1 wallet]$ mv /tmp/wallet/* .
[techuser2@oravm1 wallet]$ ls -la
total 24
drwxrwxr-x 2 techuser2 techuser2 4096 Mar  1 11:36 .
drwxrwxr-x 4 techuser2 techuser2 4096 Mar  1 11:25 ..
-rw------- 1 techuser2 techuser2 4333 Mar  1 11:33 cwallet.sso
-rw------- 1 techuser2 techuser2 4256 Mar  1 11:33 ewallet.p12
 
[techuser2@oravm1 wallet]$ sqlplus /@TESTDB2_ro
 
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production on Thu Mar 1 11:36:58 2012
 
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
 
SQL> show user
USER is "RO_USER"
SQL> quit
 
[techuser2@oravm1 wallet]$ sqlplus /@TESTDB1
 
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production on Thu Mar 1 11:38:06 2012
 
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
 
SQL> show user
USER is "RW_USER"

Referenz:

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